IdentificationKey

Identification Key to the Eucalypts of Western Australia's Wheatbelt

Two choices are given at each step in the key. Choose the most valid choice at each step, followed by the next pair of choices below, until a species name is reached. The key should not be used alone for the identification of species; consultation should be made with the main text and images of the identified species, and of closely related taxa.
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1. Adult leaves discolorous (paler on underside)

2. Rough bark hard and tessellated; fruits urceolate..........C. calophylla

2: Rough bark fibrous and in strips; fruits mostly globose to barrel-shaped (E. marginata)

3. Adult leaves glossy, green on upper side..........E. marginata subsp. marginata

3: Adult leaves dull, blue-grey to grey-green on upper side..........E. marginata subsp. thalassica

1: Adult leaves concolorous (same colour on both sides)

4. Bark minniritchi type (shed in thin longitudinal, reddish strips that reveal greenish bark beneath)

5. Branchlets, buds and young fruits not glaucous..........E. ewartiana

5: Branchlets, buds and young fruits glaucous

6. Buds and fruit pendulous; peduncles 18-50 mm long (E. caesia)

7. Flowers pink; fruit 15-20 mm wide; adult leaves 65-140 mm long..........E. caesia subsp. caesia

7: Flowers dark pink to red; fruits 17-33 mm wide; adult leaves 100-220 mm long..........E. caesia subsp. magna

6: Buds and fruits held erect; peduncles 6-22 mm long

8. Leaves lanceolate, <13 mm wide..........E. crucis subsp. lanceolata

8: Leaves rounded, >15 mm wide

9. Leaves emarginate; granite rock outcrops NE of Mukinbudin..........E. orbifolia

9: Leaves apiculate; Westonia to Moorine Rock area..........E. crucis subsp. crucis

4: Bark not minniritchi type

10. Buds and fruits in groups of 3 or singular

11. Buds and fruits singular

12. Buds and fruits pendulous, on pedicels to 20 mm long; Three Springs, Watheroo area..........E. rhodantha

12: Buds and fruits held rigidly erect, mostly sessile (E. macrocarpa)

13. Leaves mostly >80 mm long; fruits 50-70 mm wide..........E. macrocarpa subsp. macrocarpa

13: Leaves mostly <80 mm long; fruits 40-50 mm wide..........E. macrocarpa subsp. elachantha

11: Buds and fruits mostly in groups of 3

14. Adult leaves mostly dull

15. Fruits somewhat square in cross-section or with four longitudinal ribs

16. Fruits 30-65 mm wide; flowers red or creamy yellow..........E. pyriformis

16: Fruits 5-22 mm wide; flowers white

17. Fruits usually glaucous, cuboid in shape, 8-22 mm wide

18. Leaves ovate to elliptical, 25-70 mm wide, fruits 14-22 mm wide..........E. pleurocarpa

18: Leaves broad-lanceolate to ovate, 15-35 mm wide, fruits 8-15 mm wide..........E. conveniens

17: Fruits not glaucous, oblong to barrel-shaped, 5-11 mm wide

19. Adult leaves 6-16 mm wide; fruits 5-9 mm wide..........E. eudesmioides

19: Adult leaves 13-35 mm wide; fruits to 7-11 mm wide E. gittinsii subsp. illucida

15: Fruits round in cross-section and without four longitudinal ribs

20. Flower stamens arranged in four bundles; fruits 8-12 mm wide E. ebbanoensis subsp. ebbanoensis

20: Flower stamens arranged in a uniform ring; fruits 12-25 mm wide

21. Peduncles <10 mm long; fruits 12-18 mm wide, disc level to ascending E. oldfieldii

21: Peduncles >10 mm long; fruits 15-25 mm wide, disc strongly ascending E. burracoppinensis

14: Adult leaves mostly glossy

22. Obligate seeder (mallet), lacking a lignotuber

23. Buds and fruits smooth; opercula narrowly cylindrical 2-3 mm wide E. spathulata subsp. salina

23: Buds and fruits 2- or 4-ribbed; opercula mostly conical >3 mm wide

24. Buds and fruits 2-ribbed;

25. Buds and fruits held distinctly erect E. alipes

25: Buds and fruits loosely pendulous E. goniocarpa

24. Buds and fruits 4-ribbed, square in cross-section; Newdegate area (E. mimica)

26. Outer operculum shed before flowering E. mimica subsp. mimica

26: Outer operculum shed at flowering E. mimica subsp. continens

22: Lignotuber resprouter (mallee)

27. Flower stamens arranged in four bundles

28. Fruits oblong, 12-20 mm long E. gittinsii subsp. gittinsii

28: Fruits cupular, 7-12 mm long E. ebbanoensis subsp. photina

27: Flower stamens arranged in a uniform ring

29. Opercula strongly beaked (E. ser. Incrassatae)

30. Fruits 12-15 mm wide; adult leaves 15-45 mm wide; Cadoux, Koorda areas E. ceratocorys

30: Fruits 6-10 mm wide; adult leaves 5-30 mm wide

31. Adult leaves 5-12 mm wide; fruits 8-10 mm long, 6-8 mm wide E. captiosa

31: Adult leaves 10-30 mm wide; fruits 10-15 mm long, 8-10 mm wide E. incrassata

29: Opercula weakly beaked to conical to flattened-hemispherical or cylindrical

32. Buds and fruits held erect

33. Opercula equal in width to hypanthium at join, broadly conical to flattened-hemispherical

34. Buds and fruits +/- smooth E. platycorys

34: Buds and fruits strongly ribbed E. corrugata

33: Opercula narrower than hypanthium at join, narrowly conical to cylindrical

35. Pedicels well defined from fruit, � terete; fruits smooth E. orthostemon

35: Pedicels tapering to fruit, �flattened; fruits with 2 wings extending from pedicel (E. suggrandis)

36. Sepals absent from bud; pedicels 2-5 mm long E. suggrandis subsp. suggrandis

36: Sepals present on bud; pedicels 4-9 mm long E. suggrandis subsp. promiscua

32: Buds and fruits pendulous

37. Flower bud hypanthia and fruits conspicuously flared near rim E. armillata

37: Flower bud hypanthia and fruits lacking a conspicuous flare near rim (E. erythronema)

38. Branchlets conspicuously waxy, flowers usually red E. erythronema subsp. erythronema

38: Branchlets not waxy, flowers pale creamy yellow E. erythronema subsp. inornata

10: Buds and fruits in groups of 7 or more

39. Inflorescences occurring in +/- terminal panicles

40. Branchlets non-glaucous; outer stamens lacking anthers (staminodes); branchlet pith glands absent

41. Fruits 4-5 mm wide; buds 4.5-6 mm long E. cuprea

41: Fruits 7-10 mm wide; buds 7-12 mm long E. petraea

40: Branchlets often glaucous; all stamens with anthers; branchlet pith glands present (E. loxophleba)

42. Bark rough on trunk; tree or mallee-like

43. Bark rough up to mid branches E. loxophleba subsp. loxophleba

43: Bark rough only on trunks(s), often only up to 1-2 metres from base E. loxophleba subsp. supralaevis

42: Bark mostly or entirely smooth; mallee

44. Buds 5-8 mm long; fruits 4-6 mm wide E. loxophleba subsp. lissophloia

44: Buds 7-15 mm long; fruits 5-8 mm wide E. loxophleba subsp. gratiae

39: Inflorescences occurring as a single umbel in each leaf axil

45. Flowers with outer stamens shorter than inner stamens and lacking anthers (staminodes; E. ser. Heterostemones)

46. Obligate seeder (mallet), lacking a lignotuber E. prolixa

46: Lignotuber resprouter (mallee)

47. Buds 3-5 mm long; fruits 3-5 mm long, 2-4 mm wide E. yilgarnensis

47: Buds 5-12 mm long; fruits 5-13 mm long, 4-8 mm wide

48. Bark rough to upper branches; adult leaves held erect E. brevipes

48: Bark wholly smooth or rough on lower stems only; adult leaves not held erect

49. Fruits broadly obconical E. quadrans

49: Fruits barrel-shaped to urceolate to oblong-cylindrical

50. Fruit round in cross-section, smooth (E. celastroides)

51. Adult leaves grey-green; branchlets glaucous E. celastroides subsp. celastroides

51: Adult leaves glossy, green; branchlets not glaucous E. celastroides subsp. virella

50: Fruit square in cross-section, with four longitudinal ribs (E. calycogona)

52. Adult leaves glossy, green; branchlets and flower buds not glaucous E. calycogona subsp. calycogona

52: Adult leaves dull, grey-green; branchlets and flower buds glaucous E. calycogona subsp. miracula

45: All stamens of similar length and no stamens lacking anthers

53. Peduncles distinctly flattened and distally broadening

54. Tree (usually single-stemmed), including mallets

55. Adult leaves mostly glossy; bark rough or smooth

56. Bark rough on trunk

57. Opercula hemispherical, shorter than hypanthia

58. Bark rough up to mid branches E. loxophleba subsp. loxophleba

58: Bark rough only on trunks(s), often only up to 1-2 metres from base E. loxophleba subsp. supralaevis

57: Opercula long-conical to horn-shaped, much longer than hypanthia

59. Fruits campanulate, 6-13 mm wide, held pendulous E. occidentalis

59: Fruits barrel-shaped to shortly cylindrical, 3-5 mm wide, held erect E. arachnaea subsp. arrecta

56: Bark mostly or completely smooth

60. Buds ovoid, opercula broadly conical E. salubris

60: Buds cylindrical to fusiform; opercula cylindrical to elongated or beaked

61. Adult leaves linear (E. spathulata)

62. Adult leaves bluish; buds and fruits 7-flowered; fruits 4-7 mm long; southern wheatbelt E. spathulata subsp. spathulata

62: Adult leaves green; buds and fruits 3- or 7-flowered; fruits 6-8 mm long; Salt River system E. spathulata subsp. salina

61: Adult leaves lanceolate to orbicular

63. Adult leaves orbicular to elliptic (E. platypus)

64. Adult leaves orbicular, 20-60 mm wide; peduncles to 55 mm long E. platypus subsp. platypus

64: Adult leaves elliptical, 16-27 mm wide; peduncles to 70 mm long E. platypus subsp. congregata

63: Adult leaves lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate

65. Adult leaves with very numerous oil glands obscuring secondary venation

66. Pedicels 1-3 mm long; fruit valves strongly exserted E. extensa

66: Pedicels 3-8 mm long; fruit valves around rim level E. goniocarpa

65: Adult leaves with secondary venation visible

67. Fruits obconical to campanulate (E. astringens)

68. Fruits 7-12 mm long x 7-9 mm wide; central-southern wheatbelt E. astringens subsp. astringens

68: Fruits 5-9 mm long x 5-8 mm wide; southern coastal E. astringens subsp. redacta

67: Fruits cylindrical to barrel-shaped

69. Buds 3-4 mm wide; opercula long-conical E. clivicola

69: Buds 8-10 mm wide; opercula strongly beaked E. singularis

55: Adult leaves mostly dull; bark smooth

70. Opercula bluntly conical to rounded, about as long as hypanthium E. accedens

70: Opercula narrowly conical, much longer than hypanthium (E. ser. Levispermae)

71. Bark powdery; branchlets glaucous

72. New seasonal bark creamy yellow; seedlings glabrous; Moora, Three Springs area E. wandoo subsp. pulverea

72: New seasonal bark orange; seedlings hairy; central-eastern wheatbelt E. capillosa

71: Bark not powdery; branchlets not glaucous

73. Lignotuberous tree; opercula 5-11 mm long E. wandoo subsp. wandoo

73: Obligate seeder (mallet; lignotuber absent); opercula 12-23 mmm long

74. Adult leaves 5-10 mm wide E. densa subsp. densa

74: Adult leaves 10-25 mm wide E. gardneri subsp. gardneri

54: Mallee (usually multi-stemmed)

75. Operculum rounded, much shorter than hypanthia (E. ser. Loxophlebae)

76. Bark rough on trunk; tree or mallee-like

77. Bark rough up to mid branches E. loxophleba subsp. loxophleba

77: Bark rough only on trunk(s), often only up to 1-2 metres from base E. loxophleba subsp. supralaevis

76: Bark mostly or entirely smooth; mallee

78. Adult leaves narrow-lanceolate, 7-15 mm wide; shrubby habit to 4 meters tall (Northampton area) E. blaxellii

78: Adult leaves lanceolate, 10-33 mm wide; robust habit to 7 meters tall

79. Buds 5-8 mm long; fruit 4-6 mm wide E. loxophleba subsp. lissophloia

79: Buds 7-15 mm long; fruit 5-8 mm wide E. loxophleba subsp. gratiae

75: Operculum conical, cylindrical, horn-shaped or beaked, equal in length to much longer than hypanthia

80. Operculum beaked (E. ser. Incrassatae)

81. Fruits 12-15 mm wide; adult leaves 15-45 mm wide; Cadoux, Koorda areas E. ceratocorys

81: Fruits 6-10 mm wide; adult leaves 5-30 mm wide

82. Adult leaves 5-12 mm wide; fruits 8-10 mm long, 6-8 mm wide E. captiosa

82: Adult leaves 10-30 mm wide; fruits 10-15 mm long, 8-10 mm wide E. incrassata

80: Operculum conical, cylindrical or horn-shaped

83. Buds and fruits +/- pendulous (E. ser. Erectae)

84. Bark rough to mid branches, hard-fibrous, dark grey E. occidentalis

84: Bark smooth throughout or with loosely held rough bark near base only

85. Flower filaments cream; adult leaves with secondary venation visible

86. Opercula with a sharp tip, up to three times as long as hypanthia; peduncles 16-42 mm long E. sporadica

86: Opercula with a blunt tip, about twice as long as hypanthia; peduncles 12-26 mm long E. thamnoides

85: Flower filaments yellowish; adult leaves with very numerous oil glands obscuring secondary venation

87. Branchlets glaucous E. tephroclada

87: Branchlets not glaucous

88. Buds to 18-27 mm long; opercula 10-20 mm long; Mt Madden area only E. depauperata

88: Buds 25-40 mm long; opercula to 33 mm long; widespread across wheatbelt E. tenera

83: Buds and fruits held +/- erect

89. Adult leaves dull; buds ovoid (Moora, Three Springs area) E. pruiniramis

89: Adult leaves glossy green; buds much longer than wide (horn-shaped to spindle-shaped)

90. Buds and fruits in groups of 9-31; flowers yellow; fruits distinctly flat-topped E. macrandra

90: Buds and fruits in groups of 7; flowers white

91. Adult leaves with very numerous oil glands obscuring secondary venation

92. Buds sessile or nearly so; fruit valves strongly exserted E. annulata

92: Buds pedicellate; fruit valves around rim level

93. Stamens inflexed (E. vegrandis)

94. Adult leaves linear to narrowly elliptical 3-11 mm wide E. vegrandis subsp. vegrandis

94: Adult leaves elliptical 13-30 mm wide; Cranbrook, Gnowangerup area E. vegrandis subsp. recondita

93: Stamens erect

95. Pedicels well defined from fruit, � terete; fruits smooth E. orthostemon

95: Pedicels tapering to fruit, �flattened; fruits with 2 wings extending from pedicel (E. suggrandis)

96. Sepals absent from bud; pedicels 2-5 mm long E. suggrandis subsp. suggrandis

96: Sepals present on bud; pedicels 4-9 mm long E. suggrandis subsp. promiscua

91: Adult leaves with secondary venation visible (E. ser. Levispermae)

97. Buds 5-10 mm long

98. Adult leaves mostly dull, light green to grey-green

99. Branchlets glaucous E. subangusta subsp. cerina

99: Branchlets non-glaucous

100. Fruits 3-6 mm long, 2-5 mm wide E. subangusta subsp. subangusta

100: Fruits to 3 mm long, to 3 mm wide E. subangusta subsp. pusilla

98: Adult leaves maturing +/-glossy, green

101. Adult leaves 10-17 mm wide E. subangusta subsp. virescens

101: Adult leaves 4-7 mm wide E. subtilis

97: Buds 10-33 mm long

102. Opercula narrower than hypanthium at join

103. Adult leaves dull, grey-green E. hebetifolia

103: Adult leaves glossy, green

104. Bark rough, dark and firm on lower stems; seedlings with rough edges E. arachnaea subsp. arachnaea

104: Bark smooth throughout (or ribbony); seedlings glabrous E. phaenophylla

102: Opercula equal in width to hypanthium at join

105. Bark often powdery; branchlets glaucous; seedlings hairy E. capillosa

105: Bark not powdery; branchlets not glaucous; seedlings glabrous

106. Adult leaves 5-12 mm wide, green to blue-green

107. Buds 10-17 mm long; fruits 4-6 mm long E. xanthonema subsp. xanthonema

107: Buds 20-30 mm long; fruits 9-13 mm long E. histophylla

106: Adult leaves 10-30 mm wide, blue-green to purplish (E. pluricaulis)

108. Adult leaves blue-green E. pluricaulis subsp. pluricaulis

108: Adult leaves distinctly purplish E. pluricaulis subsp. porphyrea

53: Peduncles terete, angular, slightly flattened, not distally broadening

109: Branchlet pith glands present

110. Tree (single stem), including mallets

111. Branchlets, buds and young fruits glaucous E. vittata

111: Branchlets, buds and young fruits not glaucous

112. Bark smooth throughout

113. Buds and fruits pendulous, fruits 6-10 mm wide; flowers yellow-green E. dielsii

113: Buds and fruits held erect, fruits 4-5 mm wide; flowers white E. polita

112: Bark rough on lower stem(s)

114. Buds 14-25 mm long E. sargentii subsp. sargentii

114: Buds 3.5-8 mm long

115. Buds and fruits sessile E. kondininensis

115: Buds and fruits pedicellate (pedicels 2-4 mm long)

116. Buds 2-3 mm wide; fruits 2-3 mm wide E. myriadena

116: Buds 3-4 mm wide; fruits 3-6 mm wide

117. Opercula equal in length to hypanthium; fruits obconical..........E. melanoxylon

117: Opercula shorter in length than hypanthium; fruits cupular to barrel-shaped..........E. aequioperta

110: Mallee (multi-stemmed resprouter)

118. Adult leaves mostly dull

119. Fruits round, 9-15 mm wide, valves deeply enclosed in orifice; flowers pale yellow..........E. jucunda

119: Fruits obconical to cylindrical to cupular, 5-10 mm wide, valves visible; flowers creamy white

120. Fruits 7-10 mm wide, adult leaves 15-35 mm wide; bark rough or smooth..........E. obtusiflora

120: Fruits 5-7 mm wide; adult leaves 8-24 mm wide; bark smooth throughout

121. Branchlets, buds and young fruits glaucous; opercula equal in width to hypanthia at join..........E. sheathiana

121: Branchlets, buds and young fruits not glaucous; opercula often slightly narrower than hypanthia at join..........E. wubinensis

118: Adult leaves mostly glossy

122. Bark mostly rough on stem(s)

123. Adult leaves ovate, 40-85 mm wide; buds 15-25 mm long; flowers yellow-green..........E. grossa

123: Adult leaves lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate, 7-23 mm wide, buds 2-15 mm long; flowers white

124. Buds constricted at the hypanthium-operculum join..........E. comitae-vallis

124: Buds not constricted at the join

125. Buds 7-9 mm wide; fruits 7-11 mm wide..........E. platycorys

125: Buds 2-4 mm wide; fruits 2-6 mm wide

126. Buds 2-3 mm wide; fruits 2-3 mm wide..........E. myriadena

126: Buds 3-4 mm wide; fruits 3-6 mm wide

127. Opercula equal in length to hypanthium; fruits obconical..........E. melanoxylon

127: Opercula shorter in length than hypanthium; fruits cupular to barrel-shaped..........E. aequioperta

122: Bark mostly smooth (occasional short stocking of rough bark may be seen)

128. Buds 5-14 mm long, held erect or pendulous; opercula +/- equal in length or shorter than hypanthium

129. Buds and fruits strongly pendulous; peduncles 18-30 mm long..........E. deflexa

129: Buds and fruits held +/- erect; peduncles 3-17 mm long

130. Opercula striate (lightly ribbed longitudinally)

131. Pedicels 2-5 mm long, fruits 6-8 mm wide..........E. pileata

131: Pedicels 0-2 mm long, fruits 4-6 mm wide..........E. phenax subsp. phenax

130: Opercula smooth

132. Opercula broadly conical to flattened

133. Buds 3-5 mm wide; opercula flattened; fruits 4-6 mm wide..........E. exigua

133: Buds 5-6 mm wide; opercula hemispherical to broadly conical; fruits 6-7 mm wide ..........E. sp. Southern wheatbelt

132: Opercula beaked or long-conical

134. Fruits cylindrical to barrel-shaped, 4-5 mm wide; adult leaves held +/- pendulous..........E. cylindrocarpa

134: Fruits cylindrical to cupular, 6-8 mm wide; adult leaves held +/- erect..........E. cylindriflora

128: Buds 14-35 mm long, pendulous; opercula longer than hypanthia

135. Fruit disc conspicuous, level with rim; operculum scar conspicuous; flowers red or cream to pale yellow

136. Flower bud hypanthia and fruits conspicuously flared near rim..........E. armillata

136: Flower bud hypanthia and fruits lacking a conspicuous flare near rim (E. erythronema)

137. Branchlets conspicuously waxy, flowers usually red..........E. erythronema subsp. erythronema

137: Branchlets not waxy, flowers pale creamy yellow..........E. erythronema subsp. inornata

135: Fruit disc not conspicuous, sunken below rim; operculum scar indistinct; flowers cream

138. Fruits conspicuously ribbed, 12-20 mm long, 10-14 mm wide..........E. stowardii

138: Fruits smooth to weakly ribbed, 6-13 mm long, 5-12 mm wide

139. Buds smooth; fruits 5-9 mm wide; seedling leaves linear..........E. sargentii subsp. onesia

139: Buds smooth to weakly ribbed; fruits 9-12 mm wide; seedling leaves lanceolate..........E. diminuta

109: Branchlet pith glands absent

140. Tree (single stem), including mallets

141. Bark rough on stem(s)

142. Opercula about equal in length to hypanthia

143. Bark rough to upper branches; fruit valves around rim level; sandplain habitat..........E. todtiana

143: Bark rough on stems and larger branches only; fruit valves strongly exserted; creekline habitat..........E. rudis subsp. rudis

142: Opercula much longer than hypanthium

144. Tree; leaves glossy, green; opercula conical..........E. longicornis

144: Mallee; leaves dull, green to grey-green; opercula strongly beaked

145. Juvenile leaves not decurrent; branchlets and buds not glaucous; northern wheatbelt..........E. dolichocera

145: Juvenile leaves decurrent; branchlets and buds often glaucous; central wheatbelt..........E. moderata

141: Bark mostly or entirely smooth

146. Adult leaves dull, prominent in river channels and major soaks in north..........E. camaldulensis subsp. arida

146: Adult leaves glossy; habitat mostly plains and hilltops or salt lake margins

147. Buds and fruits held erect; buds 4-7 mm long

148. Juvenile leaves lanceolate, green, not glaucous; opercula round..........E. salmonophloia

148: Juvenile leaves rounded, grey-green, � glaucous; opercula conical..........E. salicola

147: Buds and fruits pendulous; buds 11-24 mm long

149. Fruits urceolate..........E. urna

149: Fruits globular to cupular to obconical (not urceolate)

150. Buds and fruits strongly ribbed..........E. ornata

150: Buds and fruits smooth to faintly ribbed

151. Opercula narrowly conical, 5-7 mm wide, smooth to faintly ribbed; fruits 6-11 mm wide..........E. falcata

151: Opercula broadly conical, 6-10 mm wide, smooth; fruits 10-13 mm wide..........E. recta

140: Mallee (multi-stemmed)

152. Adult leaves mostly dull

153. Bark rough on lower stems

154. Fruits cupular, 4-5 mm long..........E. sp. Mukinbudin

154: Fruits urceolate to barrel-shaped to globose, 5-11 mm long

155. Opercula hemispherical, equal in length or shorter than hypanthium..........E. kochii subsp. plenissima

155: Opercula strongly beaked, much longer than hypanthia

156. Juvenile leaves not decurrent; branchlets and buds not glaucous; northern wheatbelt..........E. dolichocera

156: Juvenile leaves decurrent; branchlets and buds often glaucous; central wheatbelt..........E. moderata

153: Bark completely smooth (some ribbony bark may accumulate on lower stems)

157. Adult leaves elliptical to lanceolate; opercula about equal in length to hypanthium, bluntly conical..........E. drummondii

157: Adult leaves linear to lanceolate; opercula longer than hypanthium, conical to long-beaked

158. Buds and fruits distinctly pendulous; flower filaments united in a ring at base

159. Leaves lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate; fruits broadly hemispherical, disc steeply raised..........E. synandra

159: Leaves linear to narrow-lanceolate; fruits cupular to urceolate, disc mostly level..........E. beardiana

158: Buds and fruits held loosely erect; flower filaments free at base

160. Fruits barrel-shaped to urceolate; pedicels robust; opercula horn-shaped..........E. neutra

160: Fruits hemispherical; pedicels very slender; opercula conical (E. leptopoda)

161. Adult leaf intramarginal vein absent; fruit disc moderately to strongly ascending..........E. leptopoda subsp. arctata

161: Adult leaf intramarginal vein visible; fruit disc level to slightly ascending..........E. leptopoda subsp. leptopoda

152: Adult leaves mostly glossy

162. Buds 5-12 mm long, 2-5 mm wide, massed on outside of crown, opercula conspicuously red at maturity, mostly conical to slightly beaked; fruit disc often whitish (E. ser. Porantherae)

163. Adult leaves 2-5 mm wide..........E. perangusta

163: Adult leaves 10-20 mm wide

164. Juvenile leaves connate; buds and fruits sessile..........E. uncinata

164: Juvenile leaves non-connate; buds and fruits pedicellate

165. Juvenile leaves glaucous

166. Juvenile leaves narrowly-elliptic to oblong, slightly glaucous..........E. latens

166: Juvenile leaves ovate to orbicular, strongly glaucous

167. Opercula pointed E. horistes

167: Opercula blunt E. albida

165: Juvenile leaves not glaucous

168. Adult leaves olive-green..........E. olivina

168: Adult leaves green

169. Juvenile leaves elliptical; operculum broadly conical..........E. dissimulata

169: Juvenile leaves narrow-lanceolate; operculum conical to slightly beaked..........E. rigidula

162: Buds 7-20 mm long, 2.5-10 mm wide, less conspicuously massed on crown; opercula not conspicuously red at maturity; fruit disc not whitish

170. Bark mostly rough

171. Bark persistent up to branchlets

172. Opercula round; fruits 12-22 mm wide..........E. todtiana

172: Opercula conical or beaked; fruits 6-10 mm wide..........E. decipiens

171: Bark rough up to 2 metres on stems only

173. Adult leaves dull to slightly glossy, green to grey-green

174. Operculum beaked; older plants with an open, straggly habit (Narrogin south and west wheatbelt)..........E. aspersa

174: Opercula hemispherical to broadly conical; erect, dense-crowned habit

175. Opercula rounded, broader than long, 2-3 mm long..........E. kochii subsp. plenissima

175: Opercula broadly conical, longer than broad, 3-5 mm long..........E. kochii subsp. kochii

173: Adult leaves very glossy, green

176. Juvenile leaves very crowded and heath-like; Mt Madden, Ravensthorpe areas..........E. oleosa subsp. corvina

176: Juvenile leaves not crowded and heath-like; northern and central wheatbelt

177. Pedicels 4-11 mm long; juvenile leaves on petioles 5-11 mm long, lanceolate..........E. longissima

177: Pedicels 1-4 mm long; juvenile leaves on petioles 0-5 mm long, linear to narrow-elliptic

178. Fruits 5-6 mm wide; opercula conical to beaked; far northern wheatbelt..........E. kochii subsp. borealis

178: Fruits 3-4 mm wide; opercula sharply conical; Marvel Loch area..........E. kochii subsp. yellowdinensis

170: Bark mostly smooth

179. Adult leaves 4-7 mm wide; pedicels 1-2 mm long..........E. quaerenda

179: Adult leaves 6-27 mm wide; pedicels 0-10 mm long

180. Buds and fruits sessile (lacking pedicels) and tightly clustered..........E. obesa

180: Buds and fruits pedicellate

181. Opercula equal in length or shorter than hypanthia

182. Juvenile leaves very glaucous; adult leaves 6-15 mm wide..........E. albida

182: Juvenile leaves not glaucous; adult leaves 10-27 mm wide

183. Fruits broadly obconical, disc ascending, valves at rim level..........E. pachyloma

183: Fruits barrel-shaped to truncate-globose, disc descending, valves enclosed..........E. exilis

181: Opercula longer than hypanthia

184. Opercula beaked

185. Juvenile leaves sessile; buds 10-18 mm long; fruits 6-11 mm long, 5-9 mm wide..........E. flocktoniae subsp. flocktoniae

185: Juvenile leaves petiolate; buds 7-11 mm long; fruits 4-6 mm long, 4-7 mm wide..........E. aspersa

184: Opercula conical

186. Buds and fruit held +/- erect: opercula broadly conical..........E. opimiflora

186: Buds and fruit pendulous: opercula narrowly conical

187. Bud hypanthia smooth; fruits smooth..........E. ecostata

187: Bud hypanthia ribbed; fruits ribbed..........E. dorrienii